The major source of air pollution are flue gases, emissions from refineries and factories etc. on one hand and 60% of air pollution are due to automobile exhaust emission in another hand. The I. C Engine exhaust contains several pollutants in the form of oxides of Nitrogen (Nox) which are toxic and facing severe criticism. If the concentration exceeds 100 ppm in an enclosed space if may even cause death.
Effects of automobile pollution on the environment and human beings:
The Oxides of Nitrogen together with hydrocarbons react in the presence of sunlight and form Polo chemical smog. It affects the bad condition of crops Animals, Birds crack in rubber, etc. It causes eyes irritation, objectionable odor
It causes a reduction in visibility and results in traffic hazards. The soot particles in the exhaust gases settle down on buildings and trees if may thus spoil the appearance of buildings in the long run. The exhaust smoke is dangerous for health and causes trouble in breathing Problems.
Types of Automobile emissions:
The vehicle emissions contain the following types of pollutants Exhaust emissions Carbon Monoxide Unburnt hydrocarbons Oxides of Nitrogen Lead oxides, Sculpture dioxide Smoke Evaporative Emissions Carburetor fuel tank petrol bunks Crankcase blow-by from the crankcase hydrocarbons are emitted
Measurement of Percentage of Pollutions from petrol and Diesel Vehicles with the help of exhaust gas analyzers.
A catalytic converter is a cylindrical unit about the size of a small silencer and it installed into the exhaust system of a vehicle. It is placed between the exhaust manifold and silencer in the exhaust system of a vehicle. Inside the converter, there is a honey corn structure of ceramic or metal. Which is coated with the aluminum base material and thereafter the second coat of precious metals platinum, palladium, or rhodium or a combination of the same. The second coating serves as a catalyst. A catalyst is a substance that causes a chemical reaction that normally does not happen in to the given conditions. Converter substances, toxic gases such as co, the and NOX are converted into harmless CO2, H2, and N2.
There are two types of catalytic converters A Two-way converter which is used to control only CO and HC commissions by oxidation A Three-way converter which is used almost in all petrol cars control CO and HC by oxidation As well as NOX by reduction.